List of "Learning from the Life and Thought Background of Marx Engels" Articles - Is Marx a Religious Phenomenon, Based on Historical Background and Thought Formation?

Learn about the life and thought background of Marx Engels

Table of Contents

List of "Learning from the Life and Thought Background of Marx Engels" Articles - Is Marx a Religious Phenomenon, Based on Historical Background and Thought Formation?

This article will summarize all 69 articles introduced in the series titled "Learning from the Lives and Thought Backgrounds of Marx and Engels".

These will give you a fairly detailed background on the emergence of Marx's and Engels' ideas. And this will give you a great insight not only into Marx-Engels, but also into religion, thought, culture, politics, and even the nature of human beings themselves.

And to begin this article, I will first introduce the article in which I talked about why I came to study Marx as a premise, and I will also include an article about it below.

All of them together make up a large body of over 70 articles, but we would be happy if you could use this article as a table of contents for this series.

Let us begin.

Why I, a non-Marxist, study Marx.

Marx criticized religion. As a religious person, what do I say to Marx's criticism of religion? This is a big challenge for me.

I am not a Marxist.

However, Marx had the magical power to move people all over the world. I think that is a fact.

What, then, is the source of its magic? Why did Marx's thought attract so many people? Who was Marx in the first place, and under what historical background did he live? I believe that learning these things is a great clue to learning more about religion, or even about human beings themselves.

A brief explanation of what Marxism is, its criticisms and refutations of those criticisms.

In this article, we will again look at what Marxism is in the first place, and we will also look at criticisms of it and counter-criticisms of it.

Views on Marxism by historian E. H. Carr

In this biography, E. H. Carr will point out the problems in Marx's Theory of Capital.

He will then address the famous contradictions in the "surplus value theory" and "labor value," and analyze why Marx is believed by so many people despite these problems.

It may be said that E. H. Carr, as a historian, takes a step back in his approach, not only in terms of economics, ideology, and ideology, but also in terms of his relationship with the world as a whole.

Views on Marxism by historian Tony Judt

World-renowned historian Tony Judt states definitively that "Marxism is a secular religion."

The reasons for this are discussed in the article, but the view that Marxism incorporates a lot of religious elements and that this is why Marxism was believed by many people is discussed.

What do Marx and Freud have in common?

Marx and Freud provided a narrative of man's past, present, and future. It was that redemptive narrative that attracted so many people, Tony Judt said.

And it does not matter whether the story they tell is really correct or incorrect. Whether or not it is an appealing story that attracts people is a major point of influence of Marxist-Freudian theory.

List of 10 recommended Marx biographies - to learn more about Marx Engels' thought.

Why did Marx's thought attract so many people?

How was Marx's thought developed?

Who was Marx in the first place, and under what historical background did he live?

The biographies we will present hereafter will be a great help in learning such things.

The works marked with Stars in this article are some of my most recommended biographies.

We will discuss each book in more detail in the links below, so if you are interested in any of the books, please take a look at them as well.

Life of Marx and Engels in chronological order

Later in this article, we will look at their lives based on biographies about Marx and Engels, but in this article we will first take a quick look at their lives in chronological order.

Marx and Engels are often spoken of separately, but what I felt reading their biographies was how their lives overlapped.

Therefore, rather than looking at the two lives they followed as separate entities, I will use a single chronology in this article.

What does it mean to study Engels?

Beginning with this article, "Learning from the Life and Thought Background of Marx and Engels," we will look at the life and thought of Marx and Engels in more detail.

I will now refer to the book by Tristram Hunt.'TheEngels, The Man Marx Called General."This is a biography of Engels called.

What makes this book excellent is that it explains in an easy-to-understand manner which ideas influenced Engels and how his writings were produced from them.

It is very easy to understand the flow of history because you can learn along with the historical background of the time and the ideas that were popular at the time. It is easy to understand how the ideas of Engels and Marx were developed. The book also gives me a road map of what to read next to learn more about Marx and Engels. I appreciated this.

And this book made me realize how much Engels had influenced Marx's writings. It is quite amazing.

Although this book is a biography of Engels, it also goes into great detail about Marx. It was such a great biography that I thought I could learn more about Marx by reading this book than by reading a biography or commentary on Marx.

We may use other Marx biographies to supplement some of Marx's life and interesting episodes, but basically we will focus on this book and take a closer look at the lives of Marx and Engels.

Engels' privileged family environment and the social conditions in his home town of Barmen (now Wuppertal)

Engels was born in 1820 in the town of Barmen (now Wuppertal), Germany. The Engels family was a typical upper bourgeois family, and as the sergeant of a cotton mill owner, he lived in a warm family where nothing was too much trouble. Engels was born in a newly industrialized area of Germany. He grew up here, closely observing the tragic environmental destruction and worker poverty brought about by industrialization.

Religious situation in Wuppertal, the birthplace of Engels, an industrial area

The religious situation in Barmen, the German industrial city where Engels grew up, coincides exactly with that described in Weber's "The Ethics of Protestantism and the Spirit of Capitalism.

It was surprising to learn that Engels grew up in such an environment in Germany.

This article will discuss the religious situation in Barmen, Engels' family environment, and the young Engels' views on religion.

What is German Romanticism, Gale and Rage?

What is the nature of German Romanticism, the gale that had a tremendous impact on the world of German thought in the 18th and 19th centuries?

This article looks at the characteristics of this period, which saw the emergence of such distinguished faces as Goethe, Schiller, Hegel, Hoffmann, Beethoven, and the Brothers Grimm.

Marx Engels was also born as a child of these times. It is very important to understand the background of their thought.

Engels' abandonment of his studies and his training as a merchant in Bremen, where he learned the capitalist system

Engels, who was imaginative and loved poetry, was forced to drop out of school for his family's business and had to give up his college education. He was also forced to serve an apprenticeship in a job he did not want to do, even though it was in the family business.

These youthful years only added to Engels's rebellious spirit.

We will discuss in this article how Engels became involved in political activism.

18-year-old journalist Engels accuses factory of poor conditions

Wuppertal Dayori" was published when Engels was 18 years old.

As we will discuss later, this style of "Wuppertal Dayori" was carried over into the later "The State of the Working Class in England," which in turn was directly connected to Marx's "Capitalism.

Although Engels was expelled from Gymnasium and was unable to go to university, there is something different about the genius who changed history. Although he is often overshadowed by Marx, glimpses of his genius have already appeared here.

Strauss, The Life of Jesus

What was the decisive impetus that led Engels to atheism?

In this article, I will discuss Engels' encounter with Strauss' work "The Life of Jesus" in order to consider such issues.

The Life of Jesus had an enormous impact on the radical youth of the time, leading them to atheism. The same is true of Marx. Marx was also greatly influenced by this work.

Why did Hegel's thought capture the hearts and minds of young men?

Atheism is often thought of as if one does not believe in anything, but in fact there is a different pattern.

Atheism, as discussed in this article, was not about believing in nothing, but also about denying traditional Christian beliefs and committing oneself to a new creed.

At that time, there were many young people who rejected the Christian worldview and became committed to Hegelian thought. One of them was Engels and another was Marx. 

Engels used his volunteer military service to attend the University of Berlin.

Engels served in the military in Berlin, but sneaked out and attended the University of Berlin, the center of academia.

And the University of Berlin, where he attended, was an amazing place at the time.

To his surprise, Kierkegaard and Bakunin were there, and Engels studied Hegel alongside them. Moreover, Marx and Turgenev also studied at this university a few years ago. Fear not, the University of Berlin.

What is the source of revolutionary thought, the Young Hegelian School?

Why did Hegel's philosophy have such a great impact on history? And what are the Hegelian Right and the Young Hegelians (Left)? In this article we will look at the reasons why Hegel's famous dialectic led to the revolutionary movement.

Feuerbach's materialism - Marx's "religion is opium" was born here.

I will discuss in this article the flow of Strauss, Bruno Bauer, and Feuerbach, who had a tremendous influence on the young Marcus Engels.

Marx's famous statement, "Religion is opium," comes from Feuerbach's thought, which is presented here.

It was clear to me that Marx-Engels did not create a system of thought from nothing, but rather developed it by absorbing the theories of other thinkers active at the time.

Free-spirited and radical young beer intellectuals and Marx Engels

Up to the last article, we looked at the flow of "young Hegelian" and anti-establishment thought, from Strauss to Bruno Bauer to Feuerbach.

And in this article, we will talk about the "beer intellectuals" that the young Engels was dating during his Berlin days.

In fact, Marx was also a member of this beer intelligentsia, and although he and Engels were swapped and never met, they spent their younger days in the same group.

Birth of Karl Marx and the Marx family of Trier, Germany

Karl Marx was born in 1818, the son of Heinrich, a lawyer.

The town of Trier, where Marx was born, is an ancient city with remains of ancient Rome.

And as we will see in detail in this article, like Engels, Marx was born into a wealthy family, and he was carefully raised by his family from an early age.

We will also look at the surprising fact that the Marx family was a family of Jewish rabbis (leaders).

Marx's unprecedented student days - and meeting his wife Jenny

In this article we will talk about the young Marx's student days.

Marx was originally enrolled in the law department of the University of Bonn, but he was a troublemaker who never devoted himself to his studies and was always making a lot of noise.

His father, concerned about this, sent him to the prestigious University of Berlin, where he became further absorbed in Hegel's philosophy and deepened his friendship with colleagues who would later lead him to the revolutionary movement.

The birth of journalist Marx and his awkward first meeting with Engels

In later years, Marx and Engels would get along so well that one could say they were of one mind, but the fact is that their first meeting was surprisingly awkward. This is surprising. The word "ripe" seems to be the perfect word for these two. The time had not yet come for the two of them to join forces firmly.

The fateful reunion would take place a little further down the road. I felt the interest of history in the awkwardness of their first meeting.

What is the philosophy of the visionary socialist Saint-Simon?

Imaginary socialist is a famous term preached by Engels in From Imagination to Science, published in 1880.

Engels described three famous pre-Marxian exponents of socialist thought, Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen, as "fantastical socialists."

And in contrast to their "fanciful" theories, Marx's theory is declared to be "scientific". In this article, I will first talk about the man, Saint-Simon.

What is the philosophy of Fourier, the visionary socialist?

Engels described three famous pre-Marx exponents of socialist thought-Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen-as "fanciful socialists." He then declared that Marx's theory was "scientific" as opposed to their "fanciful" theories.

In my previous article I introduced Saint-Simon, and in this article I will talk about a man named Charles Fourier.

The Beginnings of Communism and Who is Moses Hess, the German Communist

When we think of communism, we tend to think of Marx, but this idea itself is not Marx's original creation.

Neither Marx nor Engels created great ideas out of nothing. They are both intense students. They studied the great thinkers of the past and the ideas of their contemporaries to formulate their own ideas.

It is very interesting to trace the background of their thought. A prime example is the German thinker Moses Hess, who is introduced in this article. This article is especially recommended.

The hellhole of Manchester, the center of the Industrial Revolution where Engels worked.

Engels left for England in 1842 after completing a year of military service in Berlin. I even told you in a previous article that during that journey, he received direct instruction from German communist Moses Hess, who became an ardent communist.

The reason Engels visited Manchester was because the Ermen & Engels Trading Company, of which his father was a co-owner, was located there.

His father had sent Engels to Manchester to train his son as a merchant, who had become obsessed with philosophy and was repeatedly radical in his words and actions. (Of course, he also needed him to run the company.)

Young Engels struggles with the contradiction that he has become the hated bourgeois

The young Engels was forced to confront his own contradictions.

He has become himself the bourgeois that he himself had so vehemently attacked. He would continue to harbor such contradictions for a long time to come, even as he expressed his feelings to Marx.

But later on, they would also reopen and act in an imposingly bourgeois manner. The same is true of Marx. Marx, too, had a contradictory life, yearning for a bourgeois life and suffering from lack of money when he actually spent money in this way.

Who is Robert Owen, the Scottish visionary socialist?

Robert Owen was called a fantastical socialist by Engels, but he is clearly different from the other two (Saint-Simon and Fourier).

As a result, his socialism failed, but his principles and actual activities were not fanciful.

In his autobiography, which I will return to in a later article, he describes how he tried to change society, and I was very surprised to see a manager in 19th century Europe who actually cared about the workers to such an extent. His factory in New Lanark is now registered as a World Heritage site.

Engels takes a close look at the Chartist movement, the British labor movement

As mentioned in the previous article, the Owenite movement, which remained strong and popular until the 1830s, finally began to decline. A major cause of this was the new political movement in England, the Chartist movement.

In this article, I will talk about the Chartist movement and Engels, which had a very significant impact on the history of England.

British historian Thomas Carlyle ~ the only intellectual Engels respected in England

The ideas of the English historian Carlyle had a very strong influence on Marx's Communist Manifesto.

The famous passage in the book, "Capitalism has left no bond between man and man other than the bare interest, the clinging 'cash account,'" is well known as Marx's scathing critique of the workings of capitalism. These powerful words are well known as Marx's scathing criticism of the workings of capitalism, but in fact, Carlyle had already said these words in his book.

This article looks at Carlyle and Marcus Engels.

Engels' first mistress, Mary Burns.

No matter how smart Engels may be or how much he may espouse revolutionary ideas, he is still a factory owner's sergeant. It would be impossible for such a young man to go to a poor and unsafe area alone. So he repeatedly went to these dangerous areas with someone who knew them well, to observe them firsthand.

And a big part of that was his first mistress, Mary Burns. In this article, I will talk about Mary Burns.

Engels' essay that made Marx groan, "The Critical Outline of National Economics."

He combined the Hegelian philosophy he had studied with political economy. This combination would have a decisive influence on the later thought of Marx Engels.

And the "Critical Outline of National Economics," written in 1843, is no longer recognizable as the words of the later Marx. It is extraordinary that a 23-year-old young man who had dropped out of Gymnasium and was working as an apprentice merchant could have written so much.

Although Engels is inconspicuous in the shadow of the great genius that is Marx, there is no doubt that he is also a tremendous genius in history.

Engels' The State of the Working Class in England.

The strength of this work lay in the realistic narration based on Engels' own experiences. Moreover, it also brings to life his knowledge of Hegel's philosophy, which he was so passionate about. The characteristics of Engels as a philosophical journalist are demonstrated in this work.

Engels' brush with depicting the miserable lives of workers is now that of a writer. This work had a very great influence on the later Marx.

Marx is not only Marx. After all, Engels was there, and the two of them worked together to make Marx the Marx that he is.

A fateful reunion in Paris! The beginning of the collaboration between Marx and Engels

After arriving in Paris, Marx began to change the direction of his own thought. It was then that Engels arrived in Paris. The time was finally ripe. The two men were now fighters for political economy and communism, who had departed from Hegelian philosophy. Their ideas were in astonishing agreement. And their conviction was unshakable! Marx and Engels talked for ten days in a Parisian tavern. It was the moment when they began their collaboration, a collaboration that they would devote their entire lives to from now on.

Marx, The Holy Family

Marx and Engels have completely parted company with their former colleagues, the Beer intellectuals. They published "The Holy Family," their first memorable collaboration.

This article will introduce such episodes in the writing of "The Holy Family" and Engels' early suffering from Marx's surprisingly slow writing.

Family problems of the rebellious son Engels - Engels loses his place in his hometown of Barmen, Germany

If he had stayed quiet by himself in his hometown of Barmen, it would not have mattered, but Engels is not that kind of man.

He gave lectures to spread communism. Naturally, the authorities took notice, and Engels became a political prisoner and a person of interest.

Engels' father, who had lived a distinguished life in Barmen, could no longer tolerate such a situation. He was even forced to reduce his allowance.

Marx Engels' research trip to England and Engels' mistress problem

Bakunin's words are perhaps the most accurate description of Marx Engels' lifestyle: "One word of bourgeois is made into a curse word, which they repeat to the point of disgust, but they themselves are soaked in it from head to toe.

We will see more of their lives in the future, and indeed they never abandon their bourgeois lifestyle after this. I think that these contradictions are also important to consider when thinking about Marx-Engels.

German Ideology" - From Idealism to Materialism

In this article, I will discuss the German Ideology, which was co-authored by Marx Engels.

This is also where the often-heard words "superstructure and substructure" come from. And in this work, Marx Engels concluded that revolution was necessary to change history.

Also, a very important point comes up in considering Marx-Engels' thought The utopia of the communist world envisioned by Marx and Engels as of 1845 is discussed here!

Marx Engels, who denied immediate armed revolution.

Although Marx Engels has the image of having been willing to resort to armed revolution, he did not approve of the way workers suddenly started an armed revolution in the 1845-48 phase.

Is it here that reference books on Marxian thought rely on the commentary that "Marx was against armed revolution"? It is true that he may have opposed armed revolution by the workers until bourgeois society matured, but whether they were opposed to armed revolution all their lives is another matter. We must read their biographies with caution on this matter as well in the future!

Marx, The Poverty of Philosophy and Proudhon's Criticism

Proudhon was a socialist thinker active in France. He is known as a man who had ties to the Russian revolutionaries Bakunin and Gertzen, among others.

Marx and Engels were initially impressed by his ideas, but as usual, they fell out and criticized each other. Marx published "The Poverty of Philosophy," a critique of Proudhon.

The reality is that Engels' ideal was that he wanted workers to be poorer and at the bottom of the barrel.

This article makes a critically important point in the thought of Marx and Engels.

After reading various books related to Marx-Engels, the part I am going to read this time clearly put into words the discomfort I have been feeling. I hope you will read it.

What is Engels' personal life in Paris, filled with contradictions?

At the end of my last article, I told you that Engels' ideal was that he wanted the workers to be poorer and at the bottom of the barrel. I also told you that I felt uncomfortable with the way Marx Engels showed passages in which he seemed to rejoice the worse people's lives became.

Are they really working for the workers? They will continue to act in ways that make us think so. One example of this is the section presented in this article.

Publication of Marx Engels' "The Communist Manifesto" and its repercussions

The ghost of communism haunts Europe. Marx Engels' "The Communist Manifesto" (Communist Manifesto), which is famous for its words, "The ghost of communism is rising in Europe.

This article looks at how this famous work, one of the most read books of the 20th century, came to be.

What the revolution needs is a cornered class that has nothing more to lose" - Marx's proletariat was an entity created for the sake of revolutionary theory.

I think the passages in this article raise very important issues for Marxism.

What was Marx preaching communism for? Was it really to help the poor? Why did Marx and Engels continue to act in contradiction to their own theories? This section was very significant for me to think about these things.

The Impact of the French February Revolution of 1848 and Engels on the Revolutionary Battlefield

Marx Engels, who had been waiting for the revolution, was in Brussels and could not be present, but they are eagerly engaged in political activities for the proletariat revolution that will come as an inevitable part of history.

However, the revolutions that took place throughout Europe in the wake of the French February Revolution of 1848 began to take a very different turn than Marx Engels had anticipated.

The Beginning of Marx Engels' Life in Exile in England

After the French February Revolution, both Marx and Engels were hunted as political prisoners. Marx chose England as a place of asylum, where even political prisoners are accepted. Engels also followed Marx to England.

Engels' decision was also a surprise. After all, he had the nerve to ignore contradictions.

Victorian prosperity in England and rising living standards for workers

During Engels' time (1843-44) Manchester was a hell on earth. His book "The Condition of the Working Class in England" was an indictment of such miserable conditions. This work was highly praised by Marx and had a great influence on "The Communist Manifesto" and "Capitalism.

By the 1950s, however, such depictions were completely outdated. In the years of Engels' absence, England had changed radically.

The awkward truth that "Capitalism" was written with money earned through the exploitation of workers.

The awkward truth is that Engels's rich income was a direct result of his exploitation of the Manchester proletariat's labor force. The very evils he and Marx condemned in so much detail were financing their lifestyle and philosophy."

Engels worked for his father's company and sent the money to Marx. The contradiction that two people who were attacking capitalists for exploiting workers were living exactly that way is discussed in the section you are about to read.

Was Marx actually not poor? ~Bourgeois spending and ruinous finances

Engels went to work for his father's cotton mill and took a high salary of 300 pounds from his starting salary and later became a high earner with an annual income of 1,000 pounds. In terms of today's monetary value, this amounts to about 15 million yen.

And the financial aid Marx received from him is said to have been at least 45 million yen over a period of 20 years. Why did Marx still suffer from poverty? That's what we will look at in this article.

Marx and the British Museum Library - Marx, the devilish reader who devoted 12 hours a day to research

Marx was a devilish reader.

Marx, holed up in the British Museum Library, diving into a sea of books... He wrote a manuscript, tore it up, wrote it down, tore it up again, and again, just when he thought of something, he plunged into the world of books and got lost in another derailed reading... No wonder Engels, waiting for his manuscript, was saddened by this. You know...

I am an editor who is pushed around by writers who don't send in their manuscripts. However, it was a great experience for me to learn about Marx's genius and madness.

Marx Engels awaits economic depression in England in exile since the 1850s

According to the historical materialism of Marx and Engels, it was argued that bourgeois capitalism would be overthrown by a proletariat revolution triggered by an economic depression. Therefore, economic depression is indispensable for revolution. Without it, nothing can begin.

However, this was not the case, as the revolution would naturally come as long as there was an economic recession, and the two were eagerly awaiting this situation. However, when the long-awaited economic recession arrived, it turned out to be quite different from what they had expected!

Marx's illegitimate child issue and the secrets revealed by Engels.

The strong bond between Marx and his wife Jenny is written about in every biography. But despite being such a close friend, Marx had an incident that could have brought everything crashing down. Even in Marx's greatest crisis, it was Engels who saved him. Engels saved him.

Engels blackmails the production of "Capitalism" - Their joint work and Engels' contribution

Today, Marx is a household name throughout the world, but not during his lifetime. In fact, since he began his exile in London, he has been one of the countless political prisoners. If he had to live in such a situation, he would not be able to do what he needed to do.

Marx was too much of a perfectionist to finish his work, sinking in a sea of one book after another. So Engels blackmailed Marx.

After all, Marx is not only Marx. I feel that Marx is not only Marx, but also his ally Engels.

Marx and his response to the publication of "The Eighteenth of Louis-Bonaparte's Brumaire" in 1852

Surprisingly, although this work is now very well known, there was little reaction to it immediately after its publication. Even "The Communist Manifesto," which until a few decades ago was read like a bible, received almost no response immediately after its publication. It may be no wonder that this work did not get much publicity.

However, it is noteworthy that after Marx's death, his works became bizarrely acclaimed. It is noteworthy that after Marx's death, his works became unusually highly acclaimed. Marx is a typical example.

What was the elegant social life of Engels, who became upper class in England?

So far we have seen the life of Engels, but as I said, he was a very good businessman with a very good practical and social talent. He was also a trusted figure in Manchester's social circles and held a number of positions.

He is a strange figure, full of contradictions, but one can't help but feel that there is something fascinating about his scale. It was very interesting to see the face of Engels as a bourgeois socialite.

Death of his mistress Mary Burns - the greatest crisis of Engels-Marx friendship.

One day in 1863, Engels' mistress Mary Burns dies suddenly. Engels is shocked by the sudden separation. But Marx's words in response were unkind... Engels was furious. Marx must have had no idea that Engels, who had been playing around without a formal marriage, loved Mary Burns so much. If their relationship had not been restored after this, "Capitalism" might never have been published.

A brief overview of the process of writing Marx's Theory of Capital!

Marx studied the works of economists such as Adam Smith and Ricard and combined them with Hegelian philosophy to create his own theory. This was a method that economists specializing in economics and philosophers exploring only philosophy would have found difficult to conceive of.

Rather than creating a new theory on his own, Marx may be said to have created a new one by successfully synthesizing existing ones.

Engels, who had already edited a huge manuscript at the stage of the first volume of Capital

Marx's Capital is famous for being a work so difficult to read, but it was surprising to learn that Marx's original manuscript was far more incoherent than that.

Engels' barely legible reconstruction of this difficult-to-read manuscript was the "Capitalism" that we hold in our hands.

It is well known that the second and third volumes of Capital were edited by Engels, but Engels had made a great contribution to the first volume as well.

The genius of the advertising skills of Engels, the publicist of "Capitalism.

We tend to look at Marx with the knowledge of history that "Marx later spread throughout the world," but the situation at the time was quite different. Engels, who knew that he would be ignored, showed his talent here.

Engels did not hesitate to use a variety of media strategies, even self-produced ones. It was Engels who created "Capitalism," more than "a mere book on economics," but truly "the bible from which all things flow.

Without Engels, there would be no Marx! One can only be amazed at Engels' prodigious abilities as a general staff member.

Marx, impressed by "The Origin of Species," dedicates "Capitalism" to Darwin.

Marx was introduced to "The Origin of Species" at the recommendation of Engels. Engels was far more enthusiastic about the book than Marx, but it seems that Marx was also greatly moved by the theory of evolution.

Marx was so impressed with Darwin that he offered him a copy of Capital. What was Darwin's reaction? This article will discuss that.

Engels quits the company in 1869 - freeing himself from his long-desired position as an exploiter.

Engels left his father's firm in Manchester in 1869 after almost 20 years of service. Engels had started out as a correspondent, but his father had already passed away, and he was now a partner in the firm of Elmen & Engels.

Finally, Engels was a free man. He had left for London to live near Marx and to engage in political activities. It was a fresh start for Engels. From this point on, Engels' successes would grow.

Engels very active in political activities in London

We have talked about Engels' excellence in the past, but it was only after he left the family business in Manchester and came to London that his abilities were even more fully realized.

From his study in his own residence, Engels now kept a close eye on socialist movements throughout Europe. Engels' practical skills were outstanding.

Engels retired from management, now a securities investor. The contradictions continue... "

Engels had used his business acumen to further increase his windfall from his retirement as a business executive. He was now to reap enormous profits as a stockbroker. In other words, "the contradiction did not end with his last day at the factory.

Engels is the very bourgeois while vehemently denouncing the bourgeois. What did Engels think about this contradiction? He had some surprising words to say on the subject

Paul Lafargue, Marx's son-in-law and author of The Right to Laziness

Paul Lafargue, Marx's son-in-law. He wrote a book entitled "The Right to Lazy," in which he rejects labor and asserts the noble and sacred right to lazy in his work.

And while the book is known to have had a great influence on Marxists, this article will look at how Lafargue himself lived his life.

Bakunin saw that Marx's communism would become dictatorial state authoritarianism.

Bakunin is Marx Engels' strongest rival. If he had been merely an attraction, he could easily have been unseated by the political power of Marx Engels.

We have done this many times before, including by rubbing our enemies the wrong way, slandering them, and isolating them through political maneuvering.

The real threat, however, lay in Bakunin's detection of a crucial weakness in Marx-Engels' thought. Bakunin saw exactly where their ideas were going. One can only be astonished at how astute he was.

Confrontation with his archrival Lassalle and "Critique of the Gotha Platform

Bakunin was not the only formidable opponent of Marcus Engels.

Bakunin was a very dangerous figure who "saw that Marx's communism would become a dictatorial state authoritarianism" and was a difficult opponent who annihilated the International, which Marx Engels was trying to exploit.

The rassals introduced here are no less of a nuisance to them.

What did Marx think about the revolution in Russia?

According to the revolutionary theory of Marx and Engels, a proletariat revolution would take place after capitalism matured and the economy collapsed. Engels confidently stated that a proletariat revolution would take place in Russia, where capitalism was not yet fully developed.

How does this seem to make the very concept of a "law of history" that will surely come to pass untenable? This article will look at that

Marx dies without completing the second and third volumes of Capital.

In 1881, Marx was unable to see his wife through her final days and was himself battling illness. Marx, a giant who moved the world, suffered from illness in his later years and made little progress in his writing.

Marx died in 1883 without completing the second and third volumes of Capital. But Marx's story does not end with his death. Rather, after his death, his ideas would become even more massive and have a profound impact on the world.

There he was, after all, that man, Engels.

Engels' speech at the funeral and the beginning of Marx's deification.

Only 11 people attended the funeral of the great Marx, who would later influence countless others... This surprised me as well.

But conversely, it is interesting to see how Marx, who was largely unknown or unappreciated by the public, took the world by storm from here.

Then, from this point on, the man would finally make his presence felt. This is where the work of Engels would finally become significant.

Engels, The Dialectic of Nature - Marxian thought and the application of dialectics to science!

Just as Engels once applied Hegel to economics and human history, he now applies Hegel's dialectic even to science and technology. Ideology can also be applied to science.

Science is associated with objective data such as mathematical formulas, but it is surprising that it can also be constructed under an ideological worldview. And to think that these things were discussed with such seriousness is a world of its own. Engels, who even influenced the scientific framework of the communist bloc, must be feared.

Engels' best guide to Marxism, "The Anti-Dühring Theory," is

Engels' Anti-Dühring Theory had a tremendous impact on the spread of Marxism.

In contrast, however, in recent years there has been a strong criticism that "Engels distorted and spread Marx. The criticism that "Engels was the cause of the events that Marxism caused afterwards" has become stronger.

Did Engels really distort Marx? Or did he successfully explain Marx's difficult (and incomprehensible) ideas? This is a very big question. I will consider that in this article.

From Imagination to Science," born out of Engels' "Anti-Dühring Theory.

In this work, Engels named Saint-Simon, Fourier, Robert Owen, and others as imaginary socialists and positioned Marx's thought as scientific socialism. The significance of this work, which popularized the difficult "Capitalism," which no one reads or even can read, in an easy-to-understand way for the general public, cannot be emphasized enough.

The difficult and large "Capitalism" and the easy and compact "From Imagination to Science.

One might say that it was this combination that led to the explosion of Marxism.

Engels struggles to edit the second volume of Capital

Engels was already editing Marx's voluminous manuscript at the time of the first volume of Capital. Even when Marx was alive, Engels was struggling with this task. What about after Marx's death? The work became an unimaginably arduous process.

The huge pile of manuscripts filled with bad handwriting that was difficult to decipher, incoherent sentences, and disorganized quotations. Engels' eyes were even damaged by the editing process. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editing process and the problems with the second and third volumes of Capital.

Engels managed to complete the work with significant modifications.

After Marx's death, Engels devoted himself to spreading his ideas. Engels made changes to Marx's manuscript, and the third volume of "Capitalism" was completed.

However, whether this can really be said to be the work and thought of Marx may be a delicate matter.

Can we really call a collection of notes pieced together a person's work or thought? Moreover, the notes themselves are nothing more than what Marx, who had read a vast amount of literature, had accumulated in a haphazard manner. It is honestly doubtful whether they were systematically written as an idea.

Engels' death in 1895 and his enormous legacy

Engels' estate was worth a whopping 4 million dollars, or more than 400 million yen in today's Japanese yen. In addition to this, there must have been various other assets in various forms, so the total amount must have been tremendous. Most of these assets were inherited by the Marx family.

In addition, Engels' ashes will be scattered at sea after his death according to his wishes. His grave will not exist in this world. This was a surprise to me.

Is Marx Engels guilty? ~ Marxism of Lenin and Stalin

Now it is time for a general summary of this book. At the beginning of this book, the author pointed out that while Marx has been reevaluated around the world in recent years, there is a tendency to hold Engels responsible for the politics of terror in the Soviet Union, China, and other communist countries. In response to this trend, this book examines the question, "Is Engels really guilty?" In this book, we have traced the life and ideological background of Marx Engels in order to examine the question, "Is Engels really guilty?

In this article I will also share my thoughts on such Marx Engels.

Reading Marx's "Capitalism" - Is this a great book or...

Capitalism" is difficult anyway. It has even become an idiom.

This work is not something that can be competed with by reading it on its own. It is necessary to learn extensively about the historical background, the process of the book's formation, and even how the book was received.

I started thinking about reading Marx because of the "Is Marx a religious phenomenon?" theme. It took me over a year to get here, but I am truly glad that I was able to study Marx and Engels.

Engels' masterpiece "From Imagination to Science".

The difficult and large "Capitalism" and the easy and compact "From Fancy to Science". It may be said that it was this combination that led to the explosion of Marxism.

I will state my conclusions in this article on the subject of "Is Marx a Religious Phenomenon?"

Engels has accomplished something tremendous in this work. This work is as decisive as "Capitalism" in Marx's thought. We hope you will read this article!

Conclusion

If you have read this far in the article, we thank you from the bottom of our hearts.

As I write this article, I too am surprised at this amount.

We put our heart and soul into each and every one of these articles.

I would be more than happy to be of any assistance to you.

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